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Court docket of Enchantment holds insurers to the “clear phrases” of the coverage


The Court docket of Enchantment has handed down its determination in ABN Amro Financial institution N.V. v Royal & Solar Alliance Insurance coverage plc and others [2021] EWCA Civ 1789.  At first occasion, the court docket had discovered that an “uncommon” and “unprecedented” clause supplied credit score threat cowl in an all dangers marine cargo coverage. A lot of the determination was unchallenged and our full evaluation of the primary occasion judgment could be discovered right here.

Two points had been appealed:

  • Insurers argued in opposition to the court docket’s development of the “uncommon” clause and sought to argue that it shouldn’t be construed as offering credit score insurance coverage.
  • The insured’s dealer, Edge, appealed in opposition to the choice that two of the next market insurers (Ark and Introduction) weren’t liable beneath the credit score insurance coverage add-on clause as a result of they had been entitled to depend on an estoppel argument.

The Court docket of Enchantment dismissed the primary attraction and upheld the second, successfully discovering all insurers liable to the insured beneath the “clear phrases” of the credit score insurance coverage add-on.


The dispute associated to a £35 million insurance coverage declare made by ABN Amro Financial institution N.V. (the Insured) in opposition to fourteen insurers, led by RSA. Edge Brokers London Restricted (Edge) had been the dealer of the related coverage and a celebration to the proceedings.

In 2016, the Insured suffered losses when two of the main gamers on this planet cocoa market, Transmar and Euromar, suffered monetary collapse. Senior executives of each firms had been convicted and imprisoned in the USA for fraud.

An SPV of the Insured generally known as Icestar B.V. (Icestar) was concerned within the provision of structured commodities finance to the Insured’s shoppers, together with Transmar and Euromar.  The finance supplied by Icestar comprised “repo” transactions pursuant to which Icestar supplied working capital by buying Transmar and Euromar’s commodities (cocoa merchandise) for an outlined time frame, on the finish of which the shoppers had been contractually obliged to buy them again.

Within the occasion, Transmar and Euromar didn’t repurchase the cocoa merchandise from Icestar as they had been contractually obliged to do. The Insured’s losses subsequently associated to Icestar’s subsequent disposal of the cargo to 3rd events. The cocoa merchandise offered by Transmar and Euromar proved to be of poor high quality. There was subsequently a major shortfall between what could possibly be recovered beneath gross sales to 3rd events and the quantities owed by Transmar and Euromar.

The dispute with insurers arose as a result of the Insured’s 2016/17 all dangers marine coverage (the Coverage), which predominantly supplied cowl for bodily loss and injury to cargo, contained an “uncommon” clause, known as the Transaction Premium Clause (TPC).  The TPC had been added as a bespoke clause halfway by the earlier yr’s 2015/16 coverage (in July 2015) and had been drafted by exterior attorneys. The important thing components of the TPC supplied as follows:

Underwriters be aware and agree that, in respect of any Transaction, it’s hereby confirmed that the Insured is roofed beneath this contract for the Transaction Premium that the Insured would in any other case have acquired and/or earned within the absence of a Default on the a part of the Insured’s shopper.

‘Default’ means a failure, refusal or non-exercise of an choice, on the a part of the Insured’s shopper (for no matter cause) to buy (or repurchase) the Topic Matter Insured from the Insured on the Pre-agreed Worth.

The Insured and its dealer, Edge, contended that the TPC widened the scope of the Coverage from cowl just for bodily loss and injury to cargo, to offer credit score threat insurance coverage within the occasion of economic default such because the defaults by Transmar and Euromar.

Concurrently the TPC was added, a Non Avoidance Clause (NAC) was additionally added to the wording. The Insured and Edge argued that this precluded insurers from counting on negligent non-disclosures or misrepresentations to keep away from or repudiate cowl or search to reject a declare.

First occasion determination

As Sir Geoffrey Vos MR famous within the Court docket of Enchantment judgment: “the decide’s judgment is simply too lengthy even to aim to summarise its complete contents right here”. You’ll be able to entry our full article summarising the primary occasion judgment right here.

For the needs of the attraction the related findings at first occasion had been as follows:

  • In relation to the development of the TPC, the court docket held that the “the language utilized by the events is a very powerful consideration within the general unitary train of development”. He discovered that the wording of the TPC was “clear” and there was no wording which might confine the clause to a foundation of valuation clause as proposed by the insurers.
  • In relation to the legal responsibility of two following markets, Ark and Introduction, the court docket held {that a} illustration by Edge that the coverage was “as expiry” (i.e., didn’t embrace the TPC and NAC) constituted an estoppel by conference stopping the Insured from counting on the TPC to make its declare for an indemnity in opposition to them. The court docket determined that it could be unjust to permit the Insured to return on the idea on which Ark and Introduction had proceeded (i.e., that the TPC and NAC weren’t included) as a result of they might not have written the dangers had they recognized of the TPC’s inclusion.
Court docket of Enchantment determination

Building of the TPC

Insurers appealed the primary occasion determination on the development of the TPC. They argued that sure particular components of the factual matrix should have been adequate to displace the pure that means of the language of the TPC. These included, for instance, that:

  • There was no precedent for marine cargo underwriters including to a marine cargo coverage cowl defending for the contractual default of a counterparty resulting in a non-physical loss on cargoes which the Insured had bought.
  • Underwriting and broking members within the marine cargo market wouldn’t know the element of the dangers written by and the strategy of and ranking utilized by specialist underwriters for commerce credit score dangers.
  • The marine cargo market had no mechanism for pricing credit score default or monetary assure dangers, and not one of the supplies by which a commerce credit score underwriter would assess the danger of counterparty default had been supplied by the Insured to insurers.

Insurers additionally argued that the TCP couldn’t be construed as offering credit score insurance coverage in mild of sure provisions of the Marine Insurance coverage Act (MIA) 1906, which outline the scope of marine insurance coverage insurance policies and perils.

As a substitute, insurers argued that the TCP outlined the quantity recoverable beneath the Coverage within the occasion of a bodily loss or injury which fell throughout the scope of the clause.

The Court docket of Enchantment rejected these arguments and dismissed insurers’ attraction. The Court docket of Enchantment agreed with the primary occasion decide that add-ons to straightforward bodily loss and injury cowl had been frequent out there, and there was no cause why such an add-on couldn’t give safety for monetary default. The start line was that the Coverage lined bodily loss and injury to the cargo, until there have been clear phrases which supplied wider cowl. Right here, the Court docket of Enchantment discovered that the phrases of the TPC had been clear and that they expressly supplied protection for a “Default”; the language couldn’t be construed as a foundation of valuation or measure of indemnity as insurers contended. The Court docket didn’t contemplate that the provisions of the MIA 1906 may override the clear phrases of what the events agreed.

Apparently, following the listening to, the Insured and insurers reached a settlement on the primary attraction. By this time, the Court docket of Enchantment had already written its judgment and determined to ship the judgment on each appeals as “they had been intimately related” and “it could have taken vital time to disentangle the factors”.

The legal responsibility of Ark and Introduction

The second attraction was introduced by Edge. Edge’s curiosity in establishing Ark and Introduction’s legal responsibility stemmed from the truth that, at first occasion, the court docket discovered that Edge can be liable to the insured for any shortfall in its restoration from insurers per the ruling in FNCB (see right here for additional element on this in our evaluation of the primary occasion judgment).

On attraction, subsequently, Edge argued that:

  • an estoppel by conference couldn’t come up as a result of Edge and Ark / Introduction had been at cross functions and so didn’t share a standard assumption;
  • the NAC in any occasion precluded reliance on the estoppel argument by insurers; and
  • it was not unjust for the Insured to resile from the idea made by Ark and Introduction that the coverage they had been writing didn’t embrace the TPC.

We contemplate every floor of attraction in flip.

Floor (i)

At first occasion, Ark and Introduction had relied on an estoppel by conference. On attraction they relied on two species of estoppel: first, an estoppel by conference based mostly on acquiescence reasonably than any frequent assumption, and secondly an estoppel by illustration. Each instances had been based mostly on the identical substantive representations made by Edge to every of Ark and Introduction that the charges and phrases and circumstances of the Coverage had been “as expiry” or just that the Coverage was “as expiry”.

Edge argued that an estoppel by conference can not exist the place the events don’t share a standard assumption and are at cross functions. At first occasion, the court docket had discovered that Edge and Ark/Introduction, had been at cross functions concerning the that means of “as expiry”. Edge understood “as expiry” to incorporate the TPC and the NAC. Ark and Introduction understood “as expiry” as not together with the TPC and NAC as a result of copies of the TPC and NAC which had been scratched by RSA through the coverage interval had not been supplied to them at that time and they also had been unaware of them.

Edge additionally argued that an estoppel by conference based mostly on acquiescence can solely succeed the place the social gathering stated to be estopped (right here the Insured) is aware of what it’s stated to be acquiescing in (specifically that Ark and Introduction thought that the expiring coverage didn’t comprise both the TPC or the NAC).

The Court docket of Enchantment discovered that Ark and Introduction’s arguments in relation to estoppel by conference and estoppel by illustration had been primarily each based mostly on the identical misrepresentation i.e. that Edge had stated the coverage was “as expiry”. The Court docket’s interpretation of the NAC (mentioned at Floor (ii) under) meant it was not essential to resolve the query of legislation as as to whether estoppel by conference based mostly on acquiescence or estoppel by illustration can solely exist the place the events are subjectively in settlement. Nevertheless, the Court docket’s view was that such an estoppel can solely exist the place the events are subjectively in settlement. That’s, it could not come up on this case the place the events had been at cross functions.

Floor (ii)

At first occasion, the court docket held that the NAC had been included into the coverage written by Ark and Introduction and that discovering was not challenged. The query, subsequently, was whether or not the NAC precluded Ark and Introduction from counting on estoppel arguments based mostly on misrepresentations having been made to them.

The Court docket of Enchantment, disagreeing with the primary occasion decide, discovered that it did. The estoppel defence, nonetheless it was framed, was based on misrepresentations. The Court docket held that:

“the clear phrases of the NAC say that the “[t]he underwriters is not going to … search to reject a declare for loss on the grounds of … [a non-fraudulent] misrepresentation”. Ark and Introduction are founding their estoppel on non-fraudulent representations, and depend on that estoppel declare as a way to reject ABN Amro’s claims for loss in opposition to them. That’s exactly what the NAC says they can’t do. Accordingly, construing the NAC strictly as is required, it bites on the estoppel whether or not it’s an estoppel by conference or illustration – each being based mostly on the misrepresentations the decide discovered to have been made by Edge”.

Floor (iii)

Given the discovering in relation to Floor (ii), it was not vital for the Court docket of Enchantment to take care of this difficulty. Nevertheless, in obiter feedback the Court docket famous that had it been required to contemplate whether or not this was a simply final result, it could have positioned extra weight than the primary occasion decide did on the truth that neither Ark nor Introduction had learn the Coverage earlier than agreeing to it and that there’s clear legislation that underwriters are certain by the phrases of the slip to which they subscribe, whether or not they learn it or not.

For these causes, the Court docket of Enchantment allowed Edge’s attraction.


The Court docket of Enchantment’s clear reasoning put the language of the Coverage on the coronary heart of contractual interpretation and demonstrates the significance of the plain that means of the phrases used. Within the Court docket’s view, the TCP’s clear language prevailed over arguments made by insurers concerning the factual matrix. It didn’t matter that this was a ‘marine’ coverage; that in itself didn’t cease insurers accepting a credit score threat beneath the identical coverage as an add-on. Likewise, the NAC’s plain that means couldn’t be circumvented by insurers dressing up a misrepresentation argument as an estoppel argument. The choice is per long-established ideas of coverage interpretation however this judgment serves as an necessary reminder that language of the coverage is of paramount significance in construing its that means.

Given the Court docket of Enchantment’s findings, the difficulty of Edge’s legal responsibility which was mentioned at first occasion was not revisited. The Court docket subsequently didn’t have the chance to rethink the scope of the dealer’s obligation to keep away from the pointless threat of litigation.

Paul Lewis

Rachelle Waxman




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